A wide range of X-ray diffraction techniques is available within the facility for the investigation of polycrystalline materials, single crystal and thin films. Samples may be examined in either bulk or powdered form. The facility is currently equipped with seven diffractometers - two PANalytical Empyrean instruments, two PANalytical MRDs and a PANalytical MPD.
There are also two Bruker D2 desk-top instruments for rapid, routine data collection. As well as conventional configu-rations for techniques such as phase identification and texture analysis, some of these instru-ments are specifically configured for more specialised investigations, including:
Thin film measurements
Our multi-configuration, Empyrean diffractometer is equipped with a 2D PIXcel® detector and a second beam path with a triple axis analyser, to enable high resolution measurements on thin films, particularly epitaxial layers.
Small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS)
SAXS can yield dimensional and structural information on the nanoscale, whereas complemen-tary information regarding phases and crystallite size can be obtained from WAXS. Our SAXS/WAXS capability is provided by a “ScatterX 78®” attachment operating under low vacuum conditions on a state of the art, PANalytical Empyrean diffractometer. It can be used for the analysis of colloidal dispersions, nano-powders and fibres. The instrument also has the option of a 2D detec-tor for 2D SAXS experiments.
High temperature X-ray diffraction
XRD measurements can be performed at elevated temperatures up to 1000°C using an Anton Parr, environmental heating chamber. This allows the investigation of the thermal behaviour of lattice parameters, crystallisation studies, and the detection and characterisation of high temperature phases.